Chronology of Tibetan History
500 BC Birth of Buddha in Nepal.
AD 173 Birth of Tho-tho-ri-Nyantsen, 28th king of Tibet.
233 Tho-tho-ri-Nyantsen receives a Buddhist scripture, marking the introduction of Buddhism into Tibet, an event of such importance that Tibetan currency notes were dated from this year.
608-650 Reign of Songtsen Gompo, 32nd king. He sends scholars to India to study Sanskrit, and a Tibetan script is devised.
634 Tibet sends envoys and tribute to China.
640 Tibet occupies Nepal.
641 Marriage of Songtsen Gampo to Chinese princess, Wen Cheng, daughter of Emperor Tai Zong. She and his Nepalese wife influence the spread of Buddhism in Tibet. Founding of the Jokhang.
645 Songtsen Gampo sends a minister to the court of China requesting permission to build a temple on Mt Wu Tai in Shanxi Province. The request is granted.
654-676 Tibetan conquest of state of Tuyulun and acquisition of Chinese territories in Central Asia.
676-704 Tibetan expansion of Central Asia possession and partial reconquest of these by the Chinese.
704 Tride Tsugtsen (died 755) becomes king.
707-710 Peace settlement with Chinese. Tride Tsugtsen marries Chinese princess, Jin Cheng.
730 Another treaty negotiated with Chinese.
755-797 Reign of Trisong Detsen, Tride Tsugtsen's son. Reconquest of Central Asian possessions.
763 Tibetans invade Chinese capital, Changan, and withdraw 15 days later.
779 Foundation of monastery of Samye. Buddhism recognized as state religion.
783 Peace treaty with China.
785-805 Tibetan army advances westward to the Pamirs as far as the Oxus River.
797 Muni Tsangpo, Trisong Detsen's son, becomes king.
799-815 Reign of Sadneleg.
815-836 Reign of Ralpachen, son of Sadneleg. Intense activity of translation of Buddhist texts.
821 Peace treaty with China; the Tibetans retain most of their Central Asia possessions.
836-842 Reign of Lang Darma, brother of Ralpachen. As a supporter of the Bon religion, he severely persecutes Buddhism.
842-1247 Lang Darma murdered. Struggle for power ensues with small factions constantly warring or allying with each other.
978 Rinchen Tsangpo, a famous translator, invites Indian teachers to western Tibet, marking the beginning of the renaissance of Buddhism. Monasteries are established in western Tibet.
1040 Birth of Milarepa (died 1123), great Tibetan poet and mystic.
1042 Atisha (died 1054), a great Mahayana teacher from India, arrives in Tibet and carries out missionary activities in western and central Tibet.
1057 Founding of Reting Monastery.
1071 Founding of Sakya Manastry.
1182 Birth of Sakya Pondit (died 1251), learned scholar of the Sakya Sact.
1189 Genghis Khan (1167-1227) becomes leader of the Mongols.
1207 Tibetans send delegation to Genghis Khan; friendly relations and tribute established.
1227 Death of Genghis Khan. Tibetans cease paying tribute to Mongols.
1244 Sakya Pandit invited to meet Mongol Khan, and invested with temporal power over central Tibet.
1252-53 Mongol invasion
1254 Kublai Khan grants Phagspa Lodro Gyaltsen (1235-80), Sakya Pandit's nephew, supreme authority over Tibet, thus forming a politico-religious relationship between the Mongols and Tibetans (which later developed into the patron-lama link between the Manchu emperors and the dalai lama).
1354 Fighting breaks out between the Sakyapa Sect and the powerful Lang family. The might of the Sakyapa Sect declines and a reorganization of the state takes place.
1357 Birth of Tsong Khapa (died 1419), founder of the Gelugpa or Yellow Hat Sect.
1391 Birth of Gedun Truppa (died 1419), disciple of Tsong Khapa and head of the Gelugpa Sect. Posthumously named as the First Dalai Lama.
1409 Founding of Ganden Monastery.
1416 Founding of Drepung Monastery.
1419 Founding of Sera Monastery.
1434-1533 Constant power struggles, lasting more than 100 years, between the provinces of U and Tsang, whose leaders adhered to the Geligpa and Karmapa sects respectively.
1447 Founding of Tashilhunpo Monastery.
1475 Birth of Second Dalai Lama, Gedun Gyatso (died 1542)
1543 Birth of Thied Dalai Lama, Sonam Gyatso (died 1588). He visits Mongolia where Altan Khan confers the title "dalai lama" on him.
1582 Founding of Kumbum Monastery.
1588 Birth of Fourth Dalai Lama, Yonten Gyatso (died 1616), conveniently the great-grandson of Altan Khan and the only non-Tibetan in the line of dalai lamas.
1617 Birth of Fifth Dalai Lama, Ngawang Lozang Gyatso (died 1682), builder of the Potala. Collapse of the province of U and victory to the Tsang provincial forces resulting in a growth of power of the Karmapa Sect.
1624-36 Jesuit missionaries arrive in weatem Tibet.
1641-42 Gusri Khan of the Qosot Mongols overthrows king of Tsang and hands territory over to Fifth Dalai Lama.
1642-59 Consolidation of the Tibetan theocracy. Many Karmapa Sect monasteries handed over to the Gelupa Sect. Abbot of Tashilhunpo Monastery given title of "panchen lama" by the Fifth Dalai Lama.
1652 Fifth Dalai Lama visits China.
1670-1750 Chinese conquest of Mongolia and Xinjiang and occupation of Lhasa.
1682 Death of Fifth Dalai Lama; his death is kept secret by the regent.
1683 Birth of Sixth Dalai Lama, Tsangyang Gyatso.
1697 The Sixth Dalai Lama enthroned after death of Fifth Dalai Lama made public.
1705 The Khan of Qosot, Lhanjang Khan, invades Tibet and conquers Lhasa.
1706 The Khan of Qosot deposes Sixth Dalai Lama and sends him to China, but he dies en route. The Khan declares Sixth Dalai Lama not to have been a true reincarnation and enthrones a monk of his own choice.
1707 Italian Capuchin monks arrive in Tibet.
1708 Another reincarnation of Sixth Dalai Lama discovered. For reasons of security he takes refuge in Kumbum Monastery.
1716 jesuit Father Ippolito Desideri arreves in Lhasa.
1717-20 Junggar Mongols occupy and sack Lhasa, killing the Khan of Qosot. The Manchu emperor of China deposes the dalai lama appointed by the Khan of Qosot and recognizes claimant from Kumbum Monastery (Kelzang Gyatso), who is officially recognized as Seventh Dalai Lama in 1720.
1733-47 Pholhanas (died 1747) brings internal struggles to an end and, with the support of the Chinese, becomes effective ruler of Tibet.
1751 After an attempted revolt against the Chinese garrison, dalai lama is recognized as ruler of Tibet but without effective political power.
1757 Seventh Dalai Lama dies.
1758 Birth of Eighth Dalai Lama, Jompal Gyatso (died 1804).
1774-75 First British mission to Tibet led by George Bogle.
1783-84 British mission led by Samuel Turner. Chinese troops impose the Peace of Kathmandu following Gurkha incursions into Tibet.
1806-15 The Ninth Dalai Lama, Lungtok Gyatso.
1811-12 Thomas Manning, British explorer, reaches Lhasa.
1816-37 The Tenth Dalai Lama, Tsultrim Gyatso.
1838-56 The Eleventh Dalai Lama, Khedrup Gyatso.
1846 Lazarist monks, Huc and Gabet, arrive in Lhasa.
1854-56 Conflict with Nepal.
1856-75 The Twelfth Dalai Lama, Trinley Gyatso.
1876 Birth of Thirteenth Dalai Lama, Thupten Gyatso. Diplomatic conflict between Russia and Britain over contacts and privileges with Tibet.
1890 British Protectorate over Sikkim.
1904 British military expedition, under Col Younghusband, forces its way to Lhasa. Thirteenth Dalai Lama flees to Mongolia. Conclusion of agreement with abbot of Ganden Monastery.
1909 Dalai Lama returns to Lhasa.
1910 Restoration of Chinese control over eastern Tibet and dispatch of troops to Lhasa.
1911 Manchu Dynasty overthroen. Chinese Republic founded. Tibetan uprising against Chinese.
1912 Dalai Lama resumes rule without Chinese influence.
1913-14 Conference of Simla with British, Chinese and Tibetan plenipotentiaries: Chinese refuse to ratify agreement.
1920-21 Mission of Sir Charles Bell to Tibet.
1923 Ninth Panchen Lama flees to Chine.
1933 Death of Thieteenth Dalai Lama.
1934 Appointment of regent (abbot of Reting Monastery).
1935 Birth of Fourteenth Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso enthroned in 1940.
1947 Indian independence and end of the British Tibet Policy.
1949 Founding of the People's Republic of China.
1950 Fourteenth Dalai Lama flees to border with Sikkim. Returns to Lhasa after receiving assurances from Chinese government.
1951 Arrive of People's Liberation Army in Lhasa.
1954 Dalai Lama visits Beijing.
1959 Attempted uprising. Dalai Lama flees to India.
1964 Tibet formally claimed to be an "autonomous region" without the People's Republic of China.
1966-76 Cultural Revolution.
1976 Death of Chairman Mao Zedong.
1989 Death of Tenth Panchen Lama in Shigatse.
Present Dalai Lama remains in exile.

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