Site of the Gleaners who think the universe is a spherical surface in at least four-dimensional space


4. Historical fourth meeting of the Gleaners: A direct method of confirming that the universe is closed, but c


Glass Snake: In the previous meetings we showed that some scientific facts could be explained in terms of our closed universe model. Further, we need a direct method of confirming that the universe is closed. However, to be able to work the method by using the latest human technologies, or not to be: that is the question.


Robot: The subject of this meeting is to discuss the direct method.


Puzzle Sheep: In the second meeting we explained the reason why the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is so isotropic. But, in truth, CMB has a little dipole anisotropy because the earth is moving continuously toward and from the conjugate point. We may use the movement of the earth.


Glass Snake: Here, I will show you another optical property of the closed universe using Figs. 5A and 5B, where Fig. 5A shows a three-dimensional representation of the closed universe. The universe is the surface S of a sphere and the earth is supposed to be at the South Pole on the surface S, so the conjugate point C is at the North Pole.

            Then we define the line along which the earth is moving at speed v as the prime meridian PM (longitude 0 deg.). The prime meridian PM is a part of a circumference (so-called great circle) that passes the South and North Poles.


Robot: In my knowledge the speed v of the earth is about 0.001 light years per year.


Glass Snake: We also define the line of longitude of 90 deg. as the circumference N. The circumference N is perpendicular to the moving direction of the earth, and it passes the South and North Poles. The circumference N corresponds to a plane NP in the three-dimensional observable world.



            Further, suppose that an object A5 exists at the equator on the circumference N, and objects A6 and A7 exist between the South Pole and the equator and between the equator and the North Pole, respectively on the circumference N. When the earth is at the South Pole, the rays of light emitted from the objects A5, A6, and A7 toward the earth will take the path p1, where the path p1 is a part of the circumference N.

            Then when the earth has moved to the left along the prime meridian PM, the conjugate point of the earth's latest position will move to the right, and the ray of light emitted from the object A5 toward the earth will take the path p2, where the path p2 is a part of a circumference passing the earth's latest position and the corresponding conjugate point. Because the path p2 is perpendicular to the moving direction of the earth at the earth's latest position, the object A5 on the equator seems to stand still from the earth as shown in Fig. 5B. And as is the case in an open universe model, the object A6 that exists between the earth and the equator seems to move to the right (backwards) from the earth.


            On the other hand, the object A7 that exists between the equator and the North Pole seems to move to the left (forward) from the earth. If the object A7 goes nearer and nearer to the North Pole, the object A7 seems to move forward more from the earth. This is also one of the strange optical properties of the closed universe.


Puzzle Sheep: The extreme case may also be CMB. We define a part of CMB that exists on the circumference N (plane NP) as a part A8. Then, using the radius r of the source of CMB and the moving speed v of the earth, the part A8 of CMB seems to move forward at angular velocity anv from the earth, where anv=v/r.


Glass Snake: It should be noted that if the universe is open, the part A8 of CMB seems to move backwards at angular velocity v/R from the earth, where R is the distance between the earth and the source of CMB. Since r is about one thousandth of R, angular velocity v/r is about one thousand times larger than angular velocity v/R. Therefore if we can measure the forward angular velocity v/r of the part A8 of CMB and the value v/r is near the estimated value, we can confirm that the universe is closed. However the estimated value v/r is too small. S. Pony, estimate the value of v/r.


Stamp Pony: By setting 0.001 light years/year into v and 10 million light years into r, we obtain 10-10 rad/year as the value of v/r. The angular resolution of the latest human technologies may be about 10-6 -10-7 rad. This means that the estimated value of v/r is about 1/104-1/103 of the latest angular resolution.

            If the universe is open, the estimated value of v/R is about 1/107-1/106 of the latest angular resolution.


Glass Snake: That is the problem. Although we can offer the direct method of confirming that the universe is closed, we cannot work the method even using the latest human technologies.


Puzzle Sheep: Maybe in the next interglacial period humans will be able to measure the value of v/r. If the universe is open, we had better measure the value of v/R. However I'm afraid that humans won't be able to measure the value of v/R forever.


Robot: Cheer up, Gleaners!


Puzzle Sheep: What if it fails? That is, what if the result of the measurement of v/r doesnft show that the part of CMB is moving forward?


Glass Snake: The result will show that the universe is neither open nor closed. And the future astronomers will have to make up a hugely complicated theory to explain the structure of the universe.


Robot: You had better use the word econstructf instead of emake up.f


Glass Snake: About the Gleaners, after severe finger-pointing among the members, one of the eldest members will solemnly announce gAt least Ifm not responsible for the result, those to blame are the original and shameless members and the first extremely emotional assistant Robot whose name was Oil Poodle by the legend.h


Stamp Pony: We will become wanted in the next interglacial.


Robot: Why me? I just assist you. Furthermore, my name is not Poodle but Doberman. Then I will apply for the NASAfs Mars mission. I hope there will be good ingredients for machine oil in Mars. In my resumé, I wonft refer to the Gleaners at all, and I will insist that Ifm less emotional than HAL 9000.


Glass Snake: Wait a minute! There are other anisotropies of CMB. Maybe you wonft have to appc

Puzzle Sheep: Let's go to the conveyor belt sushi bar.


Robot: I shall ask you to close the meeting now.


All: We are spherical-surfacelings! We are the Gleaners!


Robot: In eGone with the Windf accent!


All: None of us are not the Gleaners! The next interglacial period is another interglacial period!


Robot: You, maybe-valued-in-the-next-interglacial surfacelings! Dismissed!

5. Historical maybe last meeting of the Gleaners

(The Doppler shift pattern in the closed universe ---

It might have been proved already) (new!)


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