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仏教神話学 ホームページ




vol1 cover little picture   大黒天変相  仏教神話学・1  


  観音変容譚  仏教神話学・2  

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Table of Contents 2 (English)

Metamorphosis of the Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara
Essay of Buddhist Mythology, 2

Table of Contents

The Journey Still Continues...     5
Part I   Mythical Field of Skanda/Gaṇeśa     7

I   Births of Brother Deities     9
1   Myths of the Birth of Gaṇeśa: Impurity and Fecundity     11
2   Myths of the Birth of Skanda: Deliverance and Battle     19
3   Contrasts between Gaṇeśa and Skanda     24

II   Mythical Space of Weituo-tian/Ida-ten, the Protecting God of Dharma     33
1   Enigma of the transliteration “Weituo”; Weituo-tian and the General Wei     35
2   Myth of the Running Ida-ten     45
3   Myth of Ida-ten and Hindu Myth of Skanda     49
4   Weituo-tian and Maitreya with Potbelly as Gate-keeper Gods of Buddhist Temples     56
5   Myth of Weituo-tian and Miji-jingang (Vajra Guhyakâdhipati); Gate-building of Buddhist temples as Eschatological Space     60
6   Mythical Position of Miji-jingang     64
7   The Vietnamese “Dual Weituo-tian” and Japanese Dual Vaiśravaṇa     68

III   Weituo-tian/Ida-ten and the Flying Begging Bowl     79
1   Weituo-tian and the Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara     81
2   Weituo-tian, Miracle of the Flying Bowl, and the Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara with a Thousand Arms and a Thousand Eyes: A Chinese Legend of the Modern Period     83
3   Legends of the Flying Bowl     86
   A   Bodhisattva Mañjuśrī and the Bowl; Mañjuśrī and Piṇḍola     86
   B   Flying Bowl as Magic and the Legend of Jietai-si     90
4   Empress and Prelate; the Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara with a Thousand Arms and a Thousand Eyes as a Deity of Love Affair     100
5   Opposition of Pure and Impure in the Legend of Jietai-si, and its Surpassing     103
6   Continence, Transcendentalism, Meta-transcendentalism; Around the Tibetan Myth of the Subjugation of Rudra     105

IV   From Weituo-tian to the Bodhisattva Mañjuśrī: Deities of the Kitchen and Refectory     115
1   Master of Vinaya Daoxuan and Weituo-tian in the Temple Kitchen     117
2   Mahākāla/Daikoku and Skanda/Weituo-tian as Deities of the Temple Kitchen     121
3   Another “Saint Monk”: Bodhisattva Mañjuśrī as Deity of the Temple Refectory     123
4   Mañjuśrī with a Thousand Arms and a Thousand Bowls, Avalokiteśvara with a Thousand Arms and a Thousand Eyes, and Weituo-tian     126
5   Mañjuśrī and Skanda/Weituo-tian     128
6   Mañjuśrī and the Gandharva Pañcaśikha with the beautiful voice     134
7   Mañjuśrī as God of Love     138
8   Pañcaśikha, Mañjuśrī, Pāñcika; Pāñcika, Guhyakâdhipati Vajrapāṇi and Skanda/Weituo-tian     142

V   Rapture of the Elephant-headed God: Origins of the God of Rapture (Huanxi-tian) and his Relation to Avalokiteśvara and Amṛta-Kuṇḍalin     153
1   The Name “God Great Saint of Rapture”     171
   A   “God of Rapture”     155
   B   Gods Named “Great Saints”     159
2   Specificity of the Cult of Dual Vināyaka     171
3   Sources of the Cult of Vināyaka: Analyze of Eleven Sūtras and Rituals     172
4   Comments on the Basic Sources     188
   A   Narrative of the Dasheng-huanxi-tian nianson gongyang-fa     188
   B   Doctrinal and Philosophical Exegesis of Hanguang     190
5   Mythical Background of Amṛta-Kuṇḍalin     196
6   Amṛta-Kuṇḍalin/Vighnāntaka in the Later Esoterism     203
7   Offering of the Best Part of the Meal: a Common Element in the Cult of Vināyaka and Amṛta-Kuṇḍalin     210
8   Narrative of Adultery between Vināyaka and Avalokiteśvara: A Love Triangle between Vināyaka, Avalokitśvara and Amṛta-Kuṇḍalin     213
9   A Variant of the Etiological Myth of Dual Vināyaka: A Missing Piece of the Chishō-zakki and Possible Original Form of the Narrative     216
10   Myth of the Subjugation/Pacification of Vināyaka by Avalokiteśvara with Eleven Heads: Dramatization of the Narrative of the Dasheng-huanxi-tian nianson gongyang-fa     218

Part II   “I Will Manifest a Female Body...”: On the Feminization of the Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara     231

VI   Lust and Saintliness of the Empress Kōmyō     233
1   Empress Kōmyō and the Monk Jicchū     235
2   Empress Kōmyō and the Leprous of the Bathroom     241
3   Empress Kōmyō and Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara     248

VII   Avalokiteśvara of Light; Tempting Bodhisattvas: Preliminary Examination on the Problem of Feminization of Avalokiteśvara     257
1   Overview of the Beliefs on Avalokiteśvara in Ancient India     259
2   The Distinction of Sex in Bodhisattvas     272
   A   From the Small Vehicle to the Great Vehicle     272
   B   Temptation by Sex as a Skillful Means     278
3   Avalokiteśvara and the Femininity     291
   A   Female Bodies in the Thirty-three Metamorphosis of Avalokiteśvara     291
   B   Avalokiteśvara and the Lotus as Symbol of Generation     293

VIII   Birth of Avalokiteśvara as Compassionate Mother: From the Mother of the Lotus Clan to Avalokiteśvara Giver of Baby/Avalokiteśvara of Easy Delivery     305
1   Avalokiteśvara Giver of Baby and the Great Person of White Dress (Baiyi-dashi)     307
2   Background of the Formation of the Cult of the Great Person of White Dress     310
3   Chinese Beliefs of Female Avalokiteśvara     319
4   Japanese Beliefs of Avalokiteśvara of Easy Delivery     321

IX   Avalokiteśvara and Śiva     329
1   Vināyaka/Huanxi-tian and Avalokiteśvara with a Thousand Arms and a Thousand Eyes     331
2   Relationship between Avalokiteśvara and the Śaiva Mythical Field     334
3   Facets of Transformational Forms of Avalokiteśvara: From the Point of View of their Relation with Śaiva Mythology     343
   A   Nīlakaṇṭha Avalokiteśvara     343
   B   Maiden Jāṅgulī     345
   C   Bodhisattva Gaurī     347
   D   On the Bukongjuansuo-shenbian-zhenyan-jing (Amoghapāśa kalparāja)     351
4   Intermezzo: Mythical Representations and Ambivalence; Avalokiteśvara and the “Problematization” of Sexuality     352

X   Two Chinese Legends: Legend of Miaoshan and Legend of the Wife of Mr. Ma     363
1   Multiple Facets of the Legend of Miaoshan     366
   A   Legend of Miaoshan in its Classical Form     366
   B   Association of Ideas from the Legend of Miaoshan: Legend of the Nun Utpalavarṇā; Legend of the Bodhisattva Prince Maheśvara; Two Stories from the Yijian-zhi; Narrative of Kogawa-dera; Legend of the Princess Chūjō     372
2   Multiple Facets of the Legend of the Wife of Mr. Ma/Legend of Avalokiteśvara with Fish Basket     389
   A   Legend of the Wife of Mr. Ma/Legend of Avalokiteśvara with Fish Basket in their Classical Form     390
   B   Legend of the Wife of Mr. Ma/Legend of Avalokiteśvara with Fish Basket in Chan Pictures     392
   C   Original Form of the Legend of the Wife of Mr. Ma/Legend of Avalokiteśvara with Fish Basket: Narrative of the Woman of Yanzhou     395
   D   Developments in Later Periods: Avalokiteśvara with Fish Basket as Subjugator of Magical Fish     399

XI   Quest Starting from the Legend of Miaoshan: Eros and Thanatos of Gods with Many Eyes     413
1   Various Facets of Avalokiteśvara with a Thousand Arms and a Thousand Eyes     415
   A   Avalokiteśvara with a Thousand Arms and a Thousand Eyes and Avalokiteśvara with Eleven Heads     415
   B   Beliefs of Avalokiteśvara with a Thousand Arms and a Thousand Eyes at the Tang and Song Periods in China     423
2   Gods with Multiple Arms and Multiple Eyes in the Hindu World     430
   A   Puruṣa as Cosmic Primordial Man     430
   B   Gods with Multiple Eyes and Eros     435
   C   Variation of Gods with Multiple Eyes     441
3   Multiple Facets of the Bodhisattva Tārā     449
   A   Bodhisattva Tārā in China and Tibet     449
   B   Goddess Tārā in the Hindu World     454

XII   Quest Starting from the Legend of the Wife of Mr. Ma: Fish, Horse and the Flame of the End of Kalpa     469
1   Symbol of the Bodhisattva of Chain of Bones (suogu-pusa)     471
2   Magic Fish Stealing Esoteric Teaching     474
3   Narrative of Matsyendranātha, King of Fishes     478
4   Births from Fishes     484
5   Aquatic Monster and Fiery Horse; Myth of the Mare’s Mouth of the End of Kalpa     489
6   Horse-Headed Avalokiteśvara (Hayagrīva), the Fiery Bodhisattva     497
7   “Horse and Femininity” in Various Myths of Eurasia     503
8   Death, Destruction, Violence and the Horse; Various Facets of the Sacrifice of Horse     509
9   Etiological Myths of the Horse and the Silkworm     515
10   Myth of the Bodhisattva Maming (“Aśvaghoṣa”, “Neighing Horse”)     522
11   Another Intermezzo: Cult of the Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara of Female Body in Relation to the Believers     532

XIII   Way to the Feminization of Avalokiteśvara     551
1   Process in China     554
   A   First Period in the Process of Feminization of Avalokiteśvara     554
   B   Cases after the Song Period; Dual Bright Bodhisattva as God of Sexual Union; Cases of Feminized Avalokiteśvara in Korea     556
2   Process in Japan     563
   A   Feminization of Avalokiteśvara in Japan: From the Ninth to Thirteen Century     563
   B   Ritual of Love with Avalokiteśvara with a Thousand Arms and a Thousand Eyes     568
   C   Avalokiteśvara with a Wish-fulfilling Wheel (Nyoirin-Kannon) and Femininity     571
   D   Avalokiteśvara with a Wish-fulfilling Wheel and the Symbol of Maiden of Jade     577
   E   Avalokiteśvara with a Wish-fulfilling Wheel, Maiden of Jade, Ḍākinī and Kingship Myth     587
   F   Avalokiteśvara with a Wish-fulfilling Wheel as Goddess of Love     591
   G   World of Sacred Places of Avalokiteśvara: Mountains, Rocks and Waterfalls     594

XIV   Return Again to India and Central Asia: “Seeds” of Femininity in the Figure of Avalokiteśvara?     605
1   Theory of Original Female Avalokiteśvara     607
2   Enigma of a Goddess Names “Miqra”     615
   A   Miqra and Goddesses of Ancient Iran and Orient     616
   B   Goddesses of Fecundity; Miqra and Sūrya     619
   C   Semitic Goddesses and Miqra     627
   D   Origin of Avalokiteśvara and “Seeds” of Femininity?     631
3   Possibilities of a “Maitreya of Female Body”     636
   A   Formation of the Mythical Figure of Maitreya     636
   B   Feminine Representations of Maitreya’s Iconography     640
   C   Sūtra of Maitreya in Female Body     642
   D   Empress Wu as Female Maitreya: Maitreyan Millenarium and Maitreya’s Parousia as Empress     645
   E   The Buddha Maiteya with a Potbelly: Budai-heshang’s Potbelly and the “Womb of the World”     664

XV   Epilogue: Bag of Budai, Bag of Daikoku; Theft and Ebisu     677
1   Budai-heshang and Maitreya     679
   A   Budai and Piṇḍola; Maitreya and Arhat/Old Monk     680
   B   Legend of Monk Qixie (Budai-heshang)     686
   C   “Fool-Monks” Worshipper of Maitreya in China and in Japan     693
2   Budai-heshang and Daikoku as a God of Fortune     697
   A   “Fool-Gods of Fortune”: Daikoku and Budai/Hotei     697
   B   Daikoku and “Carrier of Bag” (fukuro-mochi) and “Big Bags” (ōbukuro)     705
3   Daikoku and Theft     710
   A   Basic Sources of the Fourteenth Century     710
   B   Theft of Statues of Daikoku     719
   C   Daikoku and the “Indirect Theft”     722
   D   Cult of Mahākāla in China and the “Indirect Theft”     728
   E   “Running Daikoku” (hashiri Daikoku) of Chūzen-ji in Nikkō and the Big Rat Stealing the Law     734
   F   Daikoku and Ebisu Getting Rid of Robbers: Beliefs in God of Fortune as Represented in the Narrative Danse of Daikoku     736
4   Ebisu as a “God of Fishes”?     746
   A   Meaning of Double Cult of Daikoku and Ebisu     746
   B   Gate-keeping Deities: Daikoku and Ebisu; Daikoku and Kishimo-jin     755

Postface     764

List of Illustration Sources   lxx
Indices   Names of Persons   i/Geographical Names   vii/Sources from Taishō Canon   xiii/Sources Other than Taishō Canon   xviii/Bibliography   xxiii/Names of Divinities   xxxvi/Mythical Motifs   liii

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