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仏教神話学 ホームページ




vol1 cover little picture   大黒天変相  仏教神話学・1  


  観音変容譚  仏教神話学・2  

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Table of Contents 1 (English)

Variations on the Theme of Mahākāla:

Essay of Buddhist Mythology, 1

Table of Contents

Prologue   3

Part I      26
Methodological Introduction   26
1  Possibility of the Studies of Buddhist Mythology   27
2  Structuralist Revolution in the Methodology of Mythological Studies   28
3  Beginning of the Studies of Buddhist Mythology   30
4  Methodology of the Studies of Buddhist Mythology   33
5  Dieties as "Functions of Thought"   41
6  Characteristics of the Mythical Thought   44
7  Aims of the Mythological Studies   55
8  "Intelectual Bricolage"; about our Quotations   59

Part II   67

I  Enigma of the Cult of Mahākāla/Daikoku   68
1  Meaning of the name "Daikoku"   76
2  Mahākāla in Hinduism   77
3  Mythology of Śiva and Kālī: an Overview   80
4  Mahākāla in Buddhism: First Clues   85
5  Three Basic Texts   87
   A  A Record of the Buddhist Religion as Practised in India (Nanhai jigui neifa-chuan) by Yijing   88
   B  Commentary on the Mahāvairocana-sūtra by Yixing   91
   C  Commentary on the Sūtra of the Human King by Liangbi   94

II  The Ogress and Mahākāla   101
1  Mahākāla and Hārītī   104
2  Myth of the Mather of Demons Hārītī   106
3  Relationship between Mahākāla and Hārītī in Tantric Texts   113
4  The Ogreee ḍākinī   122
5  The Ogress Kālī in the Pāli Literature   127
6  Hārītī and Kālī/Pāñcika and Mahākāla      129

III  Legend of the Slayer of a Thousand Men and Ritual of Death and Rebirth   137
1  Mahākāla in the Commentary on the Sūtra of the Human King and the Legend of the King Kalmāṣapāda   139
2  Legend of the King Kalmāṣapāda in the Sūtra of Wise and Fool   141
3  Japanese Legends of the Slayer of a Tousand Men   148
4  Legend of the Subjugation of Aṅglimāla   151
5  Legend of the Subjugation of Aṅglimāla and Legend of the King Kalmāṣapāda   155
6  Change of Mind of the Prince Pure (Legend of jus primae noctis 1)   157
7  Previous Life of the Demon of Wilderness (Legend of jus primae noctis 2)   159
8  Legend of the Subjugation of the Demon of Wilderness in the Pāli Literature   163
9  Buddhist Cult in Ancient India and the Initiation Rite of Death and Rebirth   164

IV  Buddha’s Strange Disciples   173
1  The Elder named “Mahākāla”   175
   A  Story in the Theragāthā   175
   B  Story in the Vinaya literature   177
2  Buddhism of the Graveyard; Religion of the Graveyard   182
3  A Lay Devotee named “Mahākāla” and his Previous Life   190
4  Abnormal Obesity/Abnormal Haggardness   193
5  The Hungry/Gluton Disciple of the Buddha: the Venerable Piṇḍola   197
6  The Buddha’s Disciple Gavāṃpati: a Deity of Ox   206
7  The Hungry and/or Ugly Buddha’s Disciple   209
8  Combinaroty of Mythical Motifs   212

V  God of Impurity, God of Flame   219
1  In the Quest of the “Yakṣas of Great Strength”   221
2  Ucchuṣma-Jambhala   224
3  God of Impurity and of Fire   227
4  From a Man of Much Lust to a God of Subjugation   230
5  Ucchuṣnma and Cooking   233
6  Ucchuṣma as Protecting Deity of Childbirth   236
7  Ucchuṣma and Vajrakumāra (Jingang-tonger)   239
8  Children-eater Gods   241
   A  Skanda   241
   B  Goddess Yamunā   244
9  “All-Eating Flame”: the King of Wisdom Vajrayakṣa   248

VI  Indian Religious Thought and Buddhist Mythology   261
1  Hindu World: a Religious Society   263
2  Fundamental Elements of Indian Religious Thought   269
   A  Order by Sacrifice   269
   B  Inside and Outside of the “Dharma System”; World of Ascetics   273
   C  Religion of bhakti (loving faith)   277
3  Eating as Sacrifice; Leftover of Sacrifice and Meal   280
4  Cremation as Sacrifice   286
5  “Beyond the Pure and the Impure”: Symbols of Śaiva Mythology   287

VII  The Wrathful Iconography of Mahākāla in Japanese Tantrism and the Myth of the Blind Asura Andhaka   297
1  Four Iconographical Types of Japanese Mahākāla (Daikoku-ten)   300
2  Mahākāla in Wrathful Form: Origin of iconography   305
3  Myth of Subjugation of the Asura Andhaka; Indian Iconography of Mahākāla   312
4  Iconography of Subjugation of the Asura Andhaka   319
5  Problem of the Elephant Skin   323
6  Motif of the Black Goat   328
7  Mahākāla in Wrathful Form in Paris   330

VIII  What is the Bag of the “Color of Mouse”? (The Bag of Mahākāla 1)   337
1  Mahākāla and the Mouse; Mahākāla and the Straw Ricebag   340
2  Mahākāla and the Mouse: Opinions of the Scholars of Edo Period   343
3  Iconography of Mahākāla in the Apocryphal Daikoku-tenjin-hō (Ritual of Daikoku)   346
4  Author of the Daikoku-tenjin-hō   348
5  Different Versions and Sources of the Daikoku-tenjin-hō   349
6  Mahākāla and the Goddess of the Earth; Vaiśravaṇa, the Goddess of the Earth and the Mouse   354
7  Tobatsu Bishamon, Protector God of the State; Tobatsu Bishamon of the Temple Tōji   359
8  Tobatsu Bishamon and the Mouse   361
   A  Myth of the Military Exploit of Vaiśravaṇa in Tang China   361
   B  Iconography in Central Asia   363
9  Tobatsu Bishamon and the Attendent Holding a Bag   364
10  Kubera Myths Cycle in India   366
11  Kubera-Jambhala and the Mongoose; What is the “Mouse-Bag”   370
12  Kubera’s Bag/Mahākāla’s Bag   373

IX  Myth and Iconography of Tobatsu Bishamon   391
1  Different Iconographical Types of Japanese Mahākāla/Daikoku and Iconography of Tobatsu Bishamon   393
2  Textual Sources on Tobatsu Bishamon   394
   A  Sources on the Earth Goddess under the Feet of Tobatsu Bishamon   394
   B  Textual Critique of Sources of the so-called “Zōmitsu” (“Mixed Esoterism”)   397
   C  Vaiśravaṇa in the Suvarṇa-prabhāsa Sūtra and his Relationship with Other Gods of Fortune   400
   D  Origin of the Legend of King of Gods of Rampart; Myth of Vaiśravaṇa of Khatan   406
   E  Vaiśravaṇa, Mouse Deity and Earth Goddess in Khotan   409
3  Khotan and the Cult of Vaiśravaṇa   412
4  Iconographical Sources of Tobatsu Bishamon   414
   A  Iconographical Characteristics and History of known statues   414
   B  Tobatsu Bishamon and the Earth Goddess in Iconographical Documents   419
   C  Tobatsu Bishamon and the Winged Crown; Theme of Theft   425
   D  Halo of Flame; Idea of Kingship in Ancient Iran   430
5  “Before the Birth” of Tobatsu Bishamon: Toward the World of Kuṣāṇa in the North-West India   435

X  Metamorphosis of Kubera   443
1  From Khotan to the “Entry” of India, Gandhāra   446
2  Kubera in Hinduism   448
   A  Kubera and Gaṇeśa/Kubera and Skanda   448
   B  Kubera and Śiva   451
   C  Kubera and Indra (the Kingship)   453
3  Tobatsu Bishamon as “Skandalization” of “Gaṇeśaesque Kubera”   456
4  Kubera in Buddhism; the Four King-deva as Metaphor of the Wheel Turning King   458
5  Two Kinds of Kubera in the Suvarṇa-prabhāsa Sūtra: as a Protecting God of the Wheel Turning King, and as a God of Fortune   463
6  Kubera and Jambhala: their Iconography   465
7  Pāñcika and Hārītī as Tuteraly Gods of Gandhāra   467
8  Statues of the Pair Pharro and Ardoksho: “Iranian Pāñcika and Hārītī”   470
9  The Pair Pharro and Ardoksho in the Context of Indo-Iranian Syncretism   473
10  The Syncretic “Pāñcika-Pharro” and Vaiśravaṇa of Central and Eastern Asia; the Birth of Tobatsu Bishamon   475
11  Indo-Iranian Syncretism and “Kuberaic Mahākāla”   481
12  “Kuberaic Mahākāla” and Śiva; Metamorphosis of Śiva, Metamorphosis of the Earth Goddess   483
13  Śaiva Cult in North-Western India   486
14  Two Periods of the Flow of Buddhism into Eastern Asia   492

XI  Potbelly of Gaṇeśa (The Bag of Mahākāla 2)   503
1  Acculturation in North-Western India; East-West Interchange of Mythical Representations   505
2  The Big Bag of the “Japanese Type” of Mahākāla (Daikoku)   508
   A  Typology of Deities Holding Big Bag   508
   B  Opinions of Scholars from the Early Modern Period, and their Limitations   511
   C  The Elephant-Skin in the Back of Wrathful Form of Mahākāla   514
3  “Elephant and Mouse”; Myth of Gaṇeśa and his Mouse   516
4  Development of the Cult of Elephant God(s) in India   521
5  Gaṇeśa and Mahākāla/Gaṇeśa (Shōten) and his Purse   527
6  The Contents of Mahākāla (Daikoku)’s Bag; Bag of Mahākāla (Daikoku), Bag of Budai, and Potbelly of Gaṇeśa   528
7  The Context of Gaṇeśa in Buddhist Mythology (Preliminary Observations)   531
8  The Radish in the Cult of Shōten (Gaṇeśa) and Daikoku   534
9  “Bath of Oil” in the Cult of Shōten (Gaṇeśa), Daikoku and Double-bodied Vaiśravaṇa   537

XII  Deities of Three Faces and One Body: Strange Gods of Fortune   545
1  Mahākāla (Daikoku) Identified to the Bright Divinity of Miwa, Protector God of Hieizan: History of this Identification. From an Ambivalent Medieval Deity to the God of Fortune in Early Modern Times   549
2  Legends of Inari, Protector of Tōji   564
3  The True Colors of the “Odd Deity Matara”   567
4  Matara-jin and the Legend of the Cannibal Vināyaka   586
5  “Tri-une Deities”: their Variations   593
   A  Aizen-myōō (King of Brightness Love) and Matara-jin   593
   B  Variations of Mahākāla with Three Faces (Sanmen-Daikoku)   605
   C  Sarasvatī (Benzai-ten) and Mahākāla (Daikoku-ten)   611
6  “Multi-une Deities”   613
7  From Japan to Central Asia, and to India: Toward the Origins of “Tri-une Deities”   616

XII-A  Supplement: On the “Strangeness” of Japanese Medieval Tantrism   637

— A Halt in the Journey —   651

List of Illustration Sources   xxxix
Indices   Names of Persons   i/Geographical Names   iv/Sources from Taishō Canon   viii/Sources Other than Taishō Canon   xi/
Bibliography   xiii/Names of Divinities   xxiv/Mythical Motifs   xxxi

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